Page 2 - Nutrinsight-1
P. 2
NutrInsight • About the value of controlling appetite
2 Summary
3 Editorial
4 1
4 1.1
5 1.2
8 1.3
9 2
9 2.1
11 2.2
14 3
14 3.1
16 3.2
18 3.3
19 3.4
Timing and regulation of eating
Appetite, the trigger for eating
Appetite regulation and the satiety cascade
Better equipped to cope with under-eating than over-eating
Behavioural and physiological markers of appetite, satiation and satiety
The behavioural markers of appetite, satiation and satiety
Physiological markers of satiation and satiety
Factors influencing the regulation of appetite
The effect of nutritional composition on food intake
The effects of some of the physico-chemical characteristics of foods
Individual factors or the characteristics of the «eater»
Eating habits and environmental factors
of foods, such as the concentration of protein, fibre, or the viscosity, are still important parameters and, as a consequence, are essential ways to provide products to help people to deal with the sensation of hunger better.
In terms of public health and the interest of the general population, the appropriate selection of foods can, and indeed should, play a role in controlling satiety.
21 Conclusion
22 Bibliography
This brochure was first published
by Danone Research under the name “Nutritopics, #34” - “About the value of appetite” (the Groupe DANONE has sold
its Biscuits and Cereal Foods Division
to Kraft Foods in 2007).
Its content has been updated in January 2010
by Kraft Foods Europe - Biscuits R&D.
More information on page 27.
The individual’s daily food intake is the result of successive eating episodes over the course of the day, which are characterized by factors including their frequency, their size, their content and the times at which they are consumed. The internal regulation of food intake is based on two main mechanisms: satiation (which leads the person to stop eating) and satiety (which controls the interval between two successive intakes of food). These finely-tuned mechanisms are intended to maintain the energy balance (the equilibrium between energy intakes and expenditures that makes it possible to maintain a stable bodyweight), on condition that the person does not ignore these physiological signals.
There are two main types of marker that can be used to measure appetite, satiation and satiety: the behavioural markers (motivations to eat and subjective sensations, food intakes and the interval between consecutive food intakes) and the physiological markers (hormones, brain imaging).
These markers have made it possible to demonstrate that satiety lies at the centre of a complex system of interactions involving multiple factors: the nutritional composition of the food, its physico- chemical characteristics, but also the individual factors of the «eater» (age, sex, psychological state...) and his or her eating habits (traditional times for meals, cultural and family influences) and environmental parameters (size of portions, whether there are other people present, etc.).
Despite this, the physico-chemical characteristics

   1   2   3   4   5